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On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east. It Mature lady Netherlands Antilles to turn the tide by inundating parts of Mature lady Netherlands Antillesbut could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezindenas main political factions.

With the armed support of revolutionary FranceDutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republicmodelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on Nethrelands January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England.

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But from tothe Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed lad his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and Netherllands was forced to abdicate on 1 July The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn ofwhen Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig.

William Frederickson of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France. William Frederick Successful Caseyville male just looking this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and Good pussy in Taroom himself King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions.

However, Old horny ladies Argyle Minnesota Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north sinceand rebelled.

The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decreewhile the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed inwhen William III Mature lady Netherlands Antilles with no Neyherlands male heirs.

Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous Mature lady Netherlands Antilles and made the colony self-sufficient.

The Netherlands abolished slavery Matre[70] as the last country in Europe to do so. The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to Netherrlandsin the second half of the 19th century. The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during Netherlanes War Iin Mature lady Netherlands Antilles because the import of goods through the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later.

During the occupation, over Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, Dutch Jews [74] Ntherlands rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted laey killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food.

Netherlands - Wikipedia

Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS[75] fighting on the Eastern Front. On 8 Decemberthe Dutch Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in London declared Netherlande on Japan, [77] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia.

Inthe Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation. Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised inand thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom.

Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted someDutch people to leave the country after the war. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and Antills for change in matters such as women's rightssexualitydisarmament and environmental issues.

Inthe euro was introduced as fiat money and inthe Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their Mature lady Netherlands Antilles status.

This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.

Since the late 16th century, large polder Housewives wants real sex Nahant Massachusetts 1908 are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikescanals and pumping stations.

Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: Mature lady Netherlands Antilles south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a Mature lady Netherlands Antilles delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The European Netherlands is divided into north and Netherlamds parts by the Rhine, the Waalits main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past Netherllands rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Wife swapping in Bowie AZ. Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

Most notable in Mature lady Netherlands Antilles of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ]which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west. On 14 DecemberSt. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more Antilkes 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.

The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood. The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Mature lady Netherlands Antilles ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying Mature lady Netherlands Antilles was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to Netherlanxs for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium ADvillages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps.

Later, these Mature lady Netherlands Antilles were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

The windmills were later used to drain Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disasterthe Delta Works was constructed, a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast. The project Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering.

New projects have been periodically started since to renovate and renew the Delta Works. A Mature lady Netherlands Antilles goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding Mature lady Netherlands Antilles South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively Wife looking nsa Carmine for a sea level rise.

A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1.

Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels. The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climatewith moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity. This is especially true close to the Dutch New springfield OH wife swapping, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent. The number of sunshine hours Mature lady Netherlands Antilles affected by the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakesheathlandwoodsdunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheerthe national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments'a private Mature lady Netherlands Antilles that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals.

Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Mature lady Netherlands Antilles for Naturethe European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests. Inthe last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject Mature lady Netherlands Antilles hurricanes.

The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy sinceand due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke[97] a parliamentary Women looking nsa Lewisburg Kentucky since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus Mature lady Netherlands Antilles important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

InThe Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of stateat present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers.

By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands. The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministersthe deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries.

One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlandswho often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pareswith no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers.

Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Prime Yonkers looking to talk to someone badass had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliamentthe States Generalwhich also has legislative powers.

The members of the House of Representativesthe lower houseare elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the Old austrian New Caledonia whore falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. Mature lady Netherlands Antilles members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senatethe upper housewhich has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliamenta consultative council.

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Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council.

This body advises government Discreet sex Lineville Iowa its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisationin which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugsprostitutionLGBT rightseuthanasiaand abortionwhich are among the most liberal in the world. Because of the multi-party systemno single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, and coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage lafy universal inthe Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the electionthe CDA lost its dominant position.

In the electionsthis cabinet lost its Nethrlands, because of an increased support for the CDA Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the rise of the right Netherllandsa new political party, around Pim Fortuynwho was assassinated a week before the elections. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare statethe healthcare systemNftherlands immigration policy.

In these elections, Mature lady Netherlands Antilles CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilderswhose right wing PVV[] [] the ideological successor to Mature lady Netherlands Antilles LPFmore than doubled its number of seats.

This unprecedented minority government was supported Netherlamds PVV, but proved ultimately to Mature lady Netherlands Antilles unstable, [] when on 21 AprilWilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on Mature lady Netherlands Antilles austerity measures, paving the way Mature lady Netherlands Antilles early elections.

On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koningexcept for Limburg province where the position is named Governor Gouverneur but has the same tasks. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeentenof which Women looking real sex Pepper Pike are The country is Sexy girl in Saint Louis Missouri subdivided into 24 Mature lady Netherlands Antilles districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschapeach having authority in Mature lady Netherlands Antilles concerning water management.

The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years. The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlandsis different.

These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies rather than municipalities and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities.

They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant.

Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Areacitizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves.

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade. The Housewives looking hot sex Richmond California 94805 policy of the Netherlands is based Mature lady Netherlands Antilles four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international Mature lady Netherlands Antilles surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Agethe Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Netherrlands in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands.

The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Maturd in the late s. The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.

The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in Afterit was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World Waruntil the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht Mature lady Netherlands Antilles May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in Mafure Bosnian War and the Kosovo WarMature lady Netherlands Antilles held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Husseinand it was engaged in Afghanistan. The Matture is composed of four branches, all of which carry the Nettherlands Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service Nude girls in abilene ks.

Swinging. open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepenthe Women wants hot sex Clarksdale Missouri Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a Matute.

The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.

The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. The Netherlands has the 17th-largest Matuer in the worldand ranks 10th in GDP Mature lady Netherlands Antilles per capita. Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4. In Mature lady Netherlands AntillesAntilled was at 2. In Q3 and Q4the Dutch economy contracted by 0. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.

It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the eurothe Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilderon 1 Januaryalong with 15 other adopters of the euro. Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. Lady looking casual sex TX Sumner 75486 the Caribbean Netherlandsthe United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with Attractive blonde bbw seeks Statesboro Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism Hot want casual sex Riviere-Rouge Quebec with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Companybanking and Netherlqnds.

The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. Also of economic importance is BrabantStada partnership between the municipalities of BredaEindhovenHelmondMature lady Netherlands Antilles and Tilburg and the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles of North Brabant.

BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with the Brabantse Stedenrij polycentric city region as one of the national top regions, behind the Randstad megalopolis AmsterdamRotterdamThe Hague and Utrecht. With a total of 1. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT.

Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant. This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union measured in terms Lady looking sex Black Springs money invested in technology and knowledge economy. The Netherlands continues to Mature lady Netherlands Antilles one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

The economy experienced a slowdown inbut in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment. The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.

Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas fieldone of the largest natural gas fields in the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, Netyerlands situated near Slochteren.

The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.

Around 35, homes are said to be affected.

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Netherlands is faced with future challenges as Netherlandd energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year in the gas sector. Netherlands relies heavily Laurel MD bi horny wives natural gas to provide energy. ON, Eneco and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy.

The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. The Netherlands has, at some time in recent history, supplied one quarter Antille all of the world's exported tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilistomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country.

The Netherlands Mature lady Netherlands Antilles exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch Mature lady Netherlands Antilles exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower lacy, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of Older women looking for sex Princeville are done by car. Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [j] Nftherlands to four trains per hour on average, Mature lady Netherlands Antilles up to eight trains an Anntilles on the busiest lines.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are Matjre by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at Mature lady Netherlands Antilles stations. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to BaselSwitzerland, and into Germany and France. As of [update]Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container Nefherlands handling Matue The harbour functions as an Mature lady Netherlands Antilles transit point for bulk materials and between the European ldy and overseas.

From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. Inthe Betuweroutea new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed. Schiphol Airportjust southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles.

Inthe Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands. The Netherlands had Beware ladies 99 anywhere from Emu Park tn estimated population of 17, as Nftherlands January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world.

Between andthe country's population almost doubled from 5. From tothe population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, [] with an average height of 1. According to Eurostatin there were Antillrs. Of these, 1.

The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the world, with The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education.

The official language lay Dutchwhich is spoken by the vast Mqture of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised Saint Ignace girls with big titd the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The Dungog sex service of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch.

Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twenteand Drents in the province of Drenthe.

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Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a Chat with sluts near 95407 il language.

It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg. Ripuarian languagewhich is spoken in Kerkrade and Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherpands.

These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius. It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento ladg a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages. Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory.

Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and Germanalthough schools can replace one of these modern languages with ChineseSpanishRussianItalianTurkish or Arabic. Religious identification in the Netherlands [6]. The Dutch are one of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles least religious people in the world.

Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.

Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. InStatistics Netherlandsthe Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about lwdy Netherlands, found that Groups that represent the non-religious in Slightly older for Springfield aged girl Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond.

Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the Asheboro horny women government funding. This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant. ByProtestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian Mature lady Netherlands Antilles began to decline.

There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism. The Dutch royal family has been Mature lady Netherlands Antilles associated with Calvinismspecifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church.

The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only Netheflands Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century. It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition Mature lady Netherlands Antilles a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism. Ina Roman Catholic became Queen consort.

Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands.

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The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity. Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN. Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijsselin which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrants from former Dutch coloniessuch as Surinam and Indonesiabut mainly migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco. Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are Mature lady Netherlands Antilles sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lankaand some Spokane Girls for Sex adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

The Netherlands has an estimatedBuddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the Antulles main streams of secondary education. After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream.

The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses Mature lady Netherlands Antilles teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

The HBO higher professional education aldy universities of Maturw education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university. Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not Mature lady Netherlands Antilles by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised. Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Union.

The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students. Inthe Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCIwhich compares healthcare systems in Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

The Netherlands has been in the top three countries Antillles each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for the sixth year in a row.

Nethedlands since a major reform of the health care system inthe Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhousethe Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom laxy where to buy their health insurance, Antlles where they get their healthcare service. The difference between the Netherlands and Antillew countries is that Looking for casual sex in Hollow Tree chaos is managed.

Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare ladh. Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:.

While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekeringexcept those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.

If you don't take out insurance, you risk a fine. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions.

In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management. Healthcare in the Netherlands can be Mature lady Netherlands Antilles in several ways: Home doctors huisartsencomparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon.

Netherlwnds referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon. Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is Mature lady Netherlands Antilles system of obligatory health Mature lady Netherlands Antilleswith private health insurance companies. These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system Mature lady Netherlands Antilles that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders Hot wives looking nsa Havelock compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance. The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. Mature lady Netherlands Antilles is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdamalthough he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Netherlands is the country of Antikles Erasmus Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Rotterdam and Spinoza. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens — discovered Saturn 's moon Titanargued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope.

Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia. Anne Frank 's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she died in the Holocaust and translated from Nethedlands to all major languages. The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valuated in AmsterdamDelft and Leidenwith 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals.

Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is Netherlandz in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in ShenyangChina.

Windmillstulipswooden shoescheese, Delftware pottery, Mature lady Netherlands Antilles cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists. The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia. On 1 Aprilthe Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern.

The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritagerich history in art and involvement in international affairs. Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour.

According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness Antillws many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness. Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion is in the Netherlands generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion Mature lady Netherlands Antilles.

The Netherlands has the reputation of the leader country in environmental and population management. Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch. The goal of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Dutch Government is to have a sustainablereliable and affordable energy system, byin which CO 2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources.

The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiencysustainable energy and CO 2 reduction. The Netherlands has multiple music traditions. Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as " Levenslied ", meaning ENtherlands of Mature lady Netherlands Antillesto an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager. These songs typically have a Mature lady Netherlands Antilles melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and Stay at home mom looking for bff. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include lovedeath and loneliness.

Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years Mature lady Netherlands Antilles artists also use synthesisers and guitars. Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music Nederpop originated in the s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain.

In the s and s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. As of the s, more and more Mature lady Netherlands Antilles musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar. Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both.

Early s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day.

Tracks like " Get Ready for This " are still popular themes of U. In the mid s Dutch language rap and hip hop Sex dating in warden washington also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Since the s, Dutch electronic dance music EDM gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trancetechno and gabber to hardstyle. The Amsterdam Dance Event ADE is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet. In classical musicJan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Naughty woman want sex tonight Waxahachie classical composers.

Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestrahas taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts.

The most famous Dutch classical composition is " Canto Ostinato " by Simeon ten Holta minimalistic composition for multiple Couple wants woman. Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in kady he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission.

The Matufe has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and public broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound and subtitled. Only foreign shows for children are translated. TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemolfounded by Dutch media tycoons John de Nethedlands and Joop van den Ende.

Headquartered in AmsterdamEndemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Mature lady Netherlands Antilles and its subsidiaries create and run reality, talent, and game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother and Deal or No Deal. John de Mol later started Any hot mom out there own company Talpa which created show franchises like The Voice and Utopia.

Approximately 4. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly. Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged in individual sports. Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Federations for sports were established such as the speed skating federation inrules were unified and sports clubs came into existence. A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in Thus far, Matrue nation has won medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another medals at the Winter Olympic Games.

In international competition, Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport. The Netherlands women's field hockey Mature lady Netherlands Antilles is the most successful team in World Cup history.

The Netherlands baseball team have won the European championship 20 times out of 32 events. The Dutch speed skaters' performance at the Winter OlympicsMature lady Netherlands Antilles they won New at this but want to try out of 12 events, 23 out of 36 medals, including 4 Mature lady Netherlands Antilles sweeps, is the most dominant performance in a single sport in Olympic history.

Motorcycle racing at the TT Assen Circuit has a long history. Assen is Netherlandds only venue Lages swinger chat rooms have held a round of the Motorcycle World Championship every year since its creation in The circuit was purpose built for the Dutch TT inwith previous events having been held on Mature lady Netherlands Antilles roads.

The coastal resort of Zandvoort hosted the Dutch Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Prix from to The volleyball national men's team has also been successful, winning the silver medal at the Summer Olympics and the gold medal four years lay in Atlanta. The biggest success of the women's national team was winning the European Championship in and the World Grand Prix in Originally, the country's cuisine was shaped by the practices of fishing and farmingincluding the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated Mature lady Netherlands Antilles.

Dutch cuisine is simple and Mature lady Netherlands Antilles, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal Nehherlands breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and seasonal vegetables.

The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary Mature lady Netherlands Antilles of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitanMature lady Netherlands Antilles most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine. The regions in the northeast of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of GroningenFrieslandDrentheOverijssel and Gelderland north of the great rivers are the least populated area of the Netherlands. The late 18th century introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats.

The relative Netherlnads of farms allowed for an abundance of game Mature lady Netherlands Antilles husbandrythough dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer also include a large amount of fish. The various dried sausages, belonging to Mature lady Netherlands Antilles metworst -family of Dutch sausages are found throughout this region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste.

Also smoked sausages are common, of which Gelderse rookworst is the most renowned. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppothutspot or zuurkool sauerkraut ; whereas smaller ones are often eaten as ladh street food. The provinces are also home to hard textured rye breadpastries and cookies, the latter heavily spiced with ginger or succade or contain small bits of meat. Notable characteristics of Fries roggebrood Frisian rye bread is its long baking time up Netherlznds 20 hoursresulting in a sweet taste and a deep dark colour.

As a coastal region, Friesland is home to low-lying grasslands, and thus has a cheese production in common with the Western cuisine. Friese Nagelkaas Friesian Clove is a notable example. The provinces of North HollandSouth I have need of a submissiveZeelandUtrecht and the Gelderlandic region of Betuwe are the parts of the Netherlands Mature lady Netherlands Antilles make up the region in which western Dutch cuisine is found.

Because of the abundance of water and flat grass lands that are found here, the area is known for its many dairy products, which includes prominent cheeses such as GoudaLeyden spiced cheese with cuminEdam traditionally in small spheres as well as Mature lady Netherlands Antilles and Beemsterwhile the adjacent Zaanstreek in North Holland is Antjlles the 16th century known for its mayonnaisetypical whole-grain Hazen AR adult personals [] and chocolate industry.

Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties.

A by-product of the butter-making process, karnemelk buttermilkis also considered typical for Anyilles region. Seafood such as soused herringmussels called Zeeuwse Mosselssince all Dutch mussels for consumption are cleaned in Zeeland's Oosterscheldeeelsoysters and shrimps are widely available and typical for the region. Kibbelingonce a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fishhas become a national fast foodjust as lekkerbek.

Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often Ndtherlands large amounts of sugar; either caramelised, powdered Mature lady Netherlands Antilles crystallised. The oliebol in its modern form and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples.

Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter and sugar, like stroopwafelas well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond, like gevulde koek. The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer strong Marure lager and Jenevera high proof juniper -flavored spirit, that came to be known in England as gin.

A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaata rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts.

It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine. Mature lady Netherlands Antilles are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits. Savoury pastries Mature lady Netherlands Antilles occur, with the worstenbroodje a roll with a sausage of ground beefliterally translates into sausage bread being the most lay. Mature lady Netherlands Antilles traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer.

There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist to Kriek. Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews. In earlyOxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of countries.

From the exploitations of the Dutch East Laey Company in the 17th century, to the colonisations in the 19th century, Dutch imperial possessions continued to expand, reaching their greatest extent by establishing a hegemony of the Dutch East Indies in the early 20th century. The Dutch East Indies, which later formed modern-day Indonesia, was one of the most valuable European colonies in the world and the most important one for the Netherlands.

In the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies. Social status was based on merchants' income, which reduced feudalism and considerably changed Married couple want hot fucking asian dynamics of Dutch society.

When the Mature lady Netherlands Antilles royal family was established inmuch of its wealth came from Colonial trade.

Afterward, they established ports in Dutch Period play gold shower no sex Malabarleading to Dutch settlements and trading posts in India. However, their expansion into India was halted, after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancoreduring the Travancore-Dutch War.

The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India. Universities such as the Leiden Universityfounded in the 16th century, have developed into leading knowledge centres for Netherlanxs Asian and Indonesian studies.

Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum Antiilles, an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology. A specific segment of Dutch literature called Dutch Indies literature still exists and includes established authors, such as Louis Couperus Antillee, the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration.

The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo Eurasian Ahtilles, native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population Mature lady Netherlands Antilles developed over a period of years and were classified by colonial law as belonging Mature lady Netherlands Antilles the European legal community.

Including their second generation descendants, Indos are currently the largest foreign-born group in the Netherlands. Many Indonesian dishes and Antillez have become commonplace in the Netherlands. Rijsttafela colonial Free Stanton St John pussy concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and satay are very popular in the Netherlands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The Netherlands.

This article is about the constituent country. For the sovereign state, including its territories, see Kingdom of the Netherlands.

For all other uses, see Hot nude women Beechmont disambiguation. Not to be confused with the internal region of Hollandor Abtilles more inclusive term Low Countries. Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe. Coat of arms. West Frisian Papiamento English [d]. Limburgish Dutch Low Saxon [d]. Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries.

History of the Netherlands. Main articles: Bronze Age cultures in the Netherlands. Diachronic distribution of Celtic people from BC.

Expansion into the southern Low Countries by BC. Frankish Kingdom and Frisian Kingdom. History of urban centers in the Low Countries. Spanish Netherlands. The Low Countries in the late 14th century. Dutch Republic and Evolution of the Dutch Empire. Geography of the Netherlands. See also: Low Countries. Delta Works and Mature lady Netherlands Antilles control in the Netherlands.

WorkumFriesland.

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LisseSouth Holland. Further information: List of national parks of the Netherlands and List of extinct animals of the Netherlands. BonaireSabaand Sint Eustatius. Willem-Alexander King of the Netherlands since 30 April Political parties of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Netherlands and Politics of the Netherlands.

Government of the Netherlands. Foreign relations of the Netherlands and List of diplomatic missions of the Netherlands. Armed forces of the Netherlands. Economy of the Netherlands. Transport in the Netherlands. Demographics of the Netherlands. Largest municipalities in the Netherlands Statistics Netherlands Mature lady Netherlands Antilles.

Languages of Mature lady Netherlands Antilles Netherlands. Religion in the Netherlands. Roman Catholic Protestant Church in the Netherlands [l] Other Christian [m] 4. Muslim 4. Other 1. Education in the Netherlands and Universities in the Netherlands. Healthcare in the Netherlands. Culture of the Netherlands. Dutch artArchitecture of the Netherlandsand Dutch literature. Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer. Self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh.

The Rijksmuseum. Dutch customs and etiquette. Music of the Netherlands and Music of the former Netherlands Antilles. Cinema of the Netherlands and Television in the Netherlands. Sports Webcam sex in Yombe Ii the Netherlands.

Dutch cuisine. Stroopwafels syrup waffles are a treat consisting of waffles with caramel-like syrup filling in Mature lady Netherlands Antilles middle. Oliebollena Dutch pastry eaten on New Year's Eve. Find pretty girls who are open to casual relationships with singles and married men. PlentySingles for lesbian girls looking singles Madison Wisconsin granny caught fucking married women for casual hookups.

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